Foam Concrete publications

This page contains reviews and links to publications that I can not publish here for copyright reasons. This is only a small selection of all the available papers, but I selected the ones that I believe are most relevant, and not a duplication of a similar study. I will add more soon, Check out the drop-down menu of the Academic publications.

See the menu on the side of this page for more

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The link below came up with 273 articles on Foam and Concrete. All of them open access, but not all of them related to Foam Concrete as a building material.


CNT-stabilized foam concrete on the basis of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC)

This is one of the best results I have seen in the development of FC


Optimization of foam concrete masonry blocks

By Geethu Kallunkal , Dr. Elson John


A better title would have been: Optimum foam dilution to create a FC with 1600 Kg/m3 density.

This work confirms other findings on what influences FC. They seem to make their own foaming agent,  sodium lauryl sulphate. The article includes a literature review of nine studies and concluded that some more study needed to be done on the concentration of foam in concrete as to reduce the density with the desired strength. They fixed the agent additive to 5% of weight of cement diluted in 100 ml of water. This resulted in a density of about 1600 Kg M3 They also added fly ash and replaced the sand with up to 30 quarry dust. They managed to make a mix with 23.8 N/mm2 at around 1600 Kg/m3.  An interesting way to look at influences, and finding a replacement for sand.

Abstract— Foamed concrete is a versatile material which consists primarily of a cement based mortar mixed with at least 20-25% of volume air. It is non-load bearing structural element which has lower strength than conventional concrete. Foam concrete is widely used in construction field and quite popular for some application because of its light weight such as reduction of dead load, non-structural partitions and thermal insulating materials. Strength of foam concrete depends upon the foam added. Stable foam production depends upon the type of foaming agent, concentration of foam, method of preparation of foam. In this study the compressive strength of foam concrete was conducted for the specimens. Specimens were made to find out the Suitable foam concentration, by adding 2g, 5g, 8g, 10g of sodium lauryl sulphate in 100ml, 500ml,     1000 ml respectively.

I extracted a paragraph that states a procedure. “Volume of foam by weight of cement added to the concrete is estimated at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. In order to increase the strength of foam concrete, test were conducted on specimens with Fly-ash as the partial replacement of cement and quarry dust as the partial replacement of sand at varied percentages. Based on the experimental investigations optimization the foam concrete masonry blocks with an appreciable strength and density is carried out.”

Below is a presentation on the advantages of using FC, with lots of funny graphics.


On a more serious note

Foamed concrete is an increasingly popular material for diverse construction applications, from thermal/acoustic insulation and building elements to mine reinstatement and ground stabilisation. Advantages like flexibility in producing range of densities (300 to 1800kg/m3), low production cost and high workability are making foamed concrete as a suitable material for range of construction applications. Properties of foamed concrete depend on density and type of cementitious
material. This paper presents a review on constituent materials, mix proportioning, production process and properties of foamed concrete. The future potential for the material is also explained.

This is a review what is been published so far, up to the date of the writing of course. Good if you want to convince yourself or others to do some research on how to make an High Oerforming Foamed Concrete.

Let me know if you find articles etc that are progressing the FC knowledge


Below is an interesting study on FC that describes most of the properties, how its made. It has lots of tables of FC properties. This is a easy to read study (link below)

Foamed cementitious materials
Meyer, Dominik. Publication Date:2004

Foamed concrete is a material with a lot of practical aspects, a low weight and good
thermal conductibility. Due to these good properties, the foamed concrete has been
used so far mainly as a filling material. The applications in which the foamed
concrete would be used as a load bearing material are until now scarce. The reason
for that are the fairly low strength parameters.
The goal of this work is to investigate the correlations between the bubble size
distribution and mechanical/ fracture properties of hardened cement paste.
The control of the parameters, which influence the final bubble size distribution in
hardened foamed cement paste, hence the mechanical/ fracture is an unknown field.
The bubble size distribution is not constant in the time between production of foam,
mixing it with cement paste or a mortar until the foamed cementitious material is
hardened. The produced foam is changing his bubble size distribution from the very
fist moment.
The parameters, which are possible to change during foam production, are air
pressure and water to concentrate ratio. The main aspect in foams is density and
drainage, as it was used as a parameter of stability of foams. The air pressure
influences both. With high air pressure the density and drainage are low. The second
aspect to regulate the drainage is the water to concentrate value. With an increase of
the water to concentrate ratio the stability goes up, without big changes in foam
Tests like slump test for foamed concrete or normal concrete are not the same. A lot
of parameters and values have to be rearranged for foamed cement paste and
foamed concrete.
The transfer of bubbles from the foam to the cement paste is possible to control with
the foam stability. The result of mixtures with stable foams is a homogeneous
distribution of small bubbles. The lost air volume during the hardening of the mixture
is small. With unstable foams the bubble size distribution is not homogeneous. The
lost pore volume is bigger so density and strength is hard to control.
The compression strength of the mixtures correlates to the density. The density of
foamed cement paste is low, so the compression strength is low as well.
An increase of compressive strength by using more stable foams seems to be
possible. With fibres it looks to be possible to reach higher compressive strength.
With addition 1% of rigid 12 mm PVA fibres it was possible to increase the strength of
the foamed cement paste by 51%. Also it seems to be that bubble size/ distribution
has an influence to the crack mechanism of foamed cement paste.