Foam Concrete publications

This page contains reviews and links to publications that I can not publish here for copyright reasons. This is only a small selection of all the available papers, but I selected the ones that I believe are most relevant, and not a duplication of a similar study.

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List of publications

  • Portal  / links to a science website
  • Key factors affecting the compressive strength of foamed concrete
  • Material Design and Performance Evaluation of FC for Digital Fabrication
  • CNT-stabilized FC on the basis of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC)
  • Toughness, elasticity and physical properties for the evaluation of foamed concrete reinforced with hybrid fibers
  • Optimization of foam concrete masonry blocks
  • Presentation on the advantages of using FC, with lots of funny graphics.
  • Foamed cementitious materials
  • Enhancing the strength of pre-made foams for foam concrete applications
  • Role of non-reactive powder in strength enhancement of foamed concrete

End of list

There are also links to academic papers on the page Making FC Stronger Advanced methods

Articles with links, abstracts and reviews

Portal / link to a science website

The link below came up with 273 articles on Foam and Concrete. All of them open access, but not all of them related to Foam Concrete as a building material.

Also use Google Scholar to search articles on FC. If you cannot download the article from the site you found, paste the title into Google and do a search. Often the papers are free to download somewhere else.


Material Design and Performance Evaluation of Foam Concrete for Digital Fabrication

Viacheslav Markin,Venkatesh Naidu Nerella,Christof Schröfl,Gyunay Guseynova andViktor Mechtcherine Institute for Construction Materials, Technische Universität Dresden

A very well presented method of 3D printing with FC.  Published 1 Aug 2019


Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Strength and Thermal Conductivity of Extrudable Foamed Concrete and Preliminary Views on Its Potential Application in 3D Printed Multilayer Insulating Panels

Devid Falliano  Etall: Università degli Studi di Messina
The first article that I seen on Extraditable FC. This mix has great potential for 3D printing. It shows how to overcome the high viscosity of FC. A must read if you want to study FC.


Key factors affecting the compressive strength of foamed concrete

Devid Falliano, Dario De Domenico, Giuseppe Ricciardi, Ernesto
Gugliandolo.  Department of Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada Di Dio, 98166
Sant’Agata, Messina, Italy

Review: A very well done research, on foaming agents and curing conditions. Worthwhile to keep an eye on these guys, as the department is doing other work based on their extensive experience.


CNT-stabilized foam concrete on the basis of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC)

This is one of the best results I have seen in the development of FC


Toughness, elasticity and physical properties for the
evaluation of foamed concrete reinforced with hybrid fibers

Review: A good example of what can be done with Carbon fibers to make FC with a higher elasticity


Optimization of foam concrete masonry blocks

By Geethu Kallunkal , Dr. Elson John


A better title would have been: Optimum foam dilution to create a FC with 1600 Kg/m3 density.

This work confirms other findings on what influences FC. They seem to make their own foaming agent,  sodium lauryl sulphate. The article includes a literature review of nine studies and concluded that some more study needed to be done on the concentration of foam in concrete as to reduce the density with the desired strength. They fixed the agent additive to 5% of weight of cement diluted in 100 ml of water. This resulted in a density of about 1600 Kg M3 They also added fly ash and replaced the sand with up to 30 quarry dust. They managed to make a mix with 23.8 N/mm2 at around 1600 Kg/m3.  An interesting way to look at influences, and finding a replacement for sand.

Abstract— Foamed concrete is a versatile material which consists primarily of a cement based mortar mixed with at least 20-25% of volume air. It is non-load bearing structural element which has lower strength than conventional concrete. Foam concrete is widely used in construction field and quite popular for some application because of its light weight such as reduction of dead load, non-structural partitions and thermal insulating materials. Strength of foam concrete depends upon the foam added. Stable foam production depends upon the type of foaming agent, concentration of foam, method of preparation of foam. In this study the compressive strength of foam concrete was conducted for the specimens. Specimens were made to find out the Suitable foam concentration, by adding 2g, 5g, 8g, 10g of sodium lauryl sulphate in 100ml, 500ml,     1000 ml respectively.

I extracted a paragraph that states a procedure. “Volume of foam by weight of cement added to the concrete is estimated at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. In order to increase the strength of foam concrete, test were conducted on specimens with Fly-ash as the partial replacement of cement and quarry dust as the partial replacement of sand at varied percentages. Based on the experimental investigations optimization the foam concrete masonry blocks with an appreciable strength and density is carried out.”

Below is a presentation on the advantages of using FC, with lots of funny graphics.


On a more serious note



Foamed concrete is an increasingly popular material for diverse construction applications, from thermal/acoustic insulation and building elements to mine reinstatement and ground stabilisation. Advantages like flexibility in producing range of densities (300 to 1800kg/m3), low production cost and high workability are making foamed concrete as a suitable material for range of construction applications. Properties of foamed concrete depend on density and type of cementitious
material. This paper presents a review on constituent materials, mix proportioning, production process and properties of foamed concrete. The future potential for the material is also explained.

This is a review what is been published so far, up to the date of the writing of course. Good if you want to convince yourself or others to do some research on how to make an High Oerforming Foamed Concrete.

Let me know if you find articles etc that are progressing the FC knowledge


Below is an interesting study on FC that describes most of the properties, how its made. It has lots of tables of FC properties. This is a easy to read study (link below)

Foamed cementitious materials

Meyer, Dominik. Publication Date:2004

Foamed concrete is a material with a lot of practical aspects, a low weight and good thermal conductibility. Due to these good properties, the foamed concrete has been used so far mainly as a filling material. The applications in which the foamed concrete would be used as a load bearing material are until now scarce. The reason for that are the fairly low strength parameters. The goal of this work is to investigate the correlations between the bubble size distribution and mechanical/ fracture properties of hardened cement paste. The control of the parameters, which influence the final bubble size distribution in hardened foamed cement paste, hence the mechanical/ fracture is an unknown field. The bubble size distribution is not constant in the time between production of foam, mixing it with cement paste or a mortar until the foamed cementitious material is hardened. The produced foam is changing his bubble size distribution from the very fist moment.
The parameters, which are possible to change during foam production, are air pressure and water to concentrate ratio. The main aspect in foams is density and drainage, as it was used as a parameter of stability of foams. The air pressure influences both. With high air pressure the density and drainage are low. The second aspect to regulate the drainage is the water to concentrate value. With an increase of the water to concentrate ratio the stability goes up, without big changes in foam density.

Tests like slump test for foamed concrete or normal concrete are not the same. A lot of parameters and values have to be rearranged for foamed cement paste and foamed concrete. The transfer of bubbles from the foam to the cement paste is possible to control with the foam stability. The result of mixtures with stable foams is a homogeneous distribution of small bubbles. The lost air volume during the hardening of the mixture is small. With unstable foams the bubble size distribution is not homogeneous. The lost pore volume is bigger so density and strength is hard to control. The compression strength of the mixtures correlates to the density. The density of foamed cement paste is low, so the compression strength is low as well.

An increase of compressive strength by using more stable foams seems to be possible. With fibres it looks to be possible to reach higher compressive strength. With addition 1% of rigid 12 mm PVA fibres it was possible to increase the strength of the foamed cement paste by 51%. Also it seems to be that bubble size/ distribution has an influence to the crack mechanism of foamed cement paste.

Making your Foaming agent “stronger”

Xanthan Gum as an additive to make the foam stronger came up in one of the papers I was reading. It claimed the make a better FC when this was added to the agent.

In this paper,

Enhancing the strength of pre-made foams for foam concrete applications

 Xanthan gum (with a thickening capacity) has been utilized as the foam stabilizer to aggregate the liquid film. This stabilizing method is shown to significantly enhance the pore size distribution of foam concretes. The resulting pre-made foams are remarkably more stable than the control foam, and the mechanical properties of the final cellular structure are considerably improved (about 34% in mechanical foaming and 20% in the chemical foaming technique).

Xanthan gum is used in food preparation as well, and easily obtainable at a reasonable cost. Maybe worth a try is you are using a detergent of some sort as Fc foaming agent.

If you do please let me know your experience.

Effect of magnetized water on foam stability and compressive strength

of foam concrete.

Saeid Ghorbani, Sahar Ghorbani, Zhong Tao, Jorge de Brito and Mohammadreza Tavakkolizadeh

It has been widely reported that the use of magnetized water to mix concrete can increase the workability of fresh concrete and its hardened strength. Meanwhile, the use of foam concrete in construction industry is gaining popularity because of its excellent properties, such as low self-weight and excellent thermal insulation properties. But the foam stability and relatively low compressive and splitting tensile strength of foam concrete are still the main challenges for engineers to use this material. This study intends to evaluate the influence of magnetized water on the foam stability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, water absorption and micro structure of foam concrete. A total of 9 mixes were prepared with water that passed through a permanent magnetic field for 1, 5 and 10 times at flow speeds of 0.75 m/s, 1.75 m/s and 2.75 m/s, respectively. The test results indicate that the foam stability, compressive

and splitting tensile strength of foam concrete are significantly improved by using magnetized water, whereas the water absorption of hardened foam concrete decreases slightly.


Does it has the same effect if a superplastisizer is used?

The most interesting part I found was that it proofs the effect on water and what the optimal treatment was. Very few articles on “magnetised “ water describe this in detail.



K.-J. Byun, H.-W. Song* and S.-S. Park

Department of Civil Engineering, Yonsei Univ., Seoul 120-749, Korea


This is a short article, nine pages, reporting on just about all the FC properties. They paid attention to the pore size of the polymer foam agent and the effect on the MPa. Although the call it a structural FC the maximum density tested is 640 Kg m3 and reached 47Kg/cm2. If I am correct that is 4.7 MPa. Good graphs of the results.  One of the few articles that reported on impact behavior, adding EPS in the mix and fibers of vynylon of 19 and 30 mm long. The longest fiber gave a better tensile and flexural strength. I have not seen articles using fibers this long. This is also one of the must read papers if you want to study FC. Could be very helpful in the direction you may want to take.

You have to subscribe to the above site to get the doc, let me know if that is a problem. Depending on the use I may be able to send you a copy.

Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2 

The link to this article is below. (It is in the list of lots of other interesting articles.)


This article is interesting for the study of FC properties. The oil industry has used FC for decades to place around the well bore to stabilize the ground and keep the pipe in place. The oil industry has spent a lot of money researching this and there are numerous patients on the mixes. Although the objective of these studies is very different than for creating a construction FC, I believe we could learn something from them.  I have not seen an article dealing with FC for construction mentioning the oil industry knowledge (please help me find one).

This article deals with the influence of CO2 on FC, but there are a number of interesting points for us, one of them is, and I quote ”Low-density foamed cement is more ductile than conventional cement and can tolerate expansion, shrinking, and displacement without losing its sealing capabilities (Spielman et al., 2006). In addition to its light-weight property, foamed cement has excellent resistance to temperature and fluid-induced stresses.

Another big difference is that they produced the FC in a high speed mixer. Thus not using a pre-formed foam and then mix this in. This is an interesting method to follow and could be useful for the precast industry, some do already I believe.

There is also mention of the importance of the bubble size and uniformity.

No effort was spared in examining the test samples with all sorts of modern equipment, that is generally not available to the average lab.


Role of non-reactive powder in strength enhancement of foamed

A. Bagheri ⇑, S.A. Samea

Abstract The effect of sand replacement by an inert stone powder on strength enhancement of foamed concrete was investigated through an experimental program. Strength increases of 90–150% were observed which could not be explained by the currently used strength-porosity relationships. The concept of increased paste volume due to sand replacement by powder and the resulting reduction in the porosity of the paste phase was introduced to explain the observed results. Based on this concept, modified strength-porosity relationships which are capable of taking in to account the effect of sand replacement by powder on strength of foamed concrete were derived.


An interesting read that may help you form some ideas on studying FC

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